After Adolf Hitler's rise to power in 1933, the Nazis issued every person a permanent identity card. A "J" on the cover indicated that the person was Jewish. Each Jewish man's name was prefaced with "Israel" and each woman's name with "Sarah." Permanent yellow armbands were issued at a later time.
Card courtesy of the Neufeld Family Archive, a collection of Holocaust and family artifacts donated by Anne Neufeld Levin. The collection is housed at Special Collections in UCSC's McHenry Library.
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