December 2, 2002
Lick Observatory honored for role in weather
By Tim Stephens
The National Weather Service has honored UC's Lick Observatory on Mt.
Hamilton with a Length of Service Award for 120 years of daily weather
observations and dedicated service to the United States. The award was
presented on November 22 in the observatory's main building atop Mt.
|David Reynolds of the National
Weather Service (far right) presents an award to Lick Observatory
for 120 years of providing weather data to the agency. Accepting
the award are (left to right) operations director Remington Stone
and observatory staff Lotus Baker and Wendy Hanson. Baker and Hanson
report the weather data from Mt. Hamilton as part of the National
Weather Service Cooperative Observing Program.
Photo: National Weather Service
Presenting the award were National Weather Service Western Region director
Vickie L. Nadolski and David W. Reynolds, meteorologist in charge of
the San Francisco Bay Area National Weather Service Forecast Office.
Accepting the award on behalf of the observatory was research astronomer
and operations director Remington Stone.
The staff at Lick Observatory, as part of the National Weather Service
Cooperative Observing Program, record the daily high and low temperatures,
rainfall, and snowfall atop Mt. Hamilton. At the end of each month,
this data is sent to the local National Weather Service Office in Monterey
for quality control and then forwarded to the National Climate Center,
where it is incorporated into the official climate record of the United
This cooperative effort has been ongoing with Lick Observatory since
completion of the first dome in 1881. The first dome housed a small
12-inch telescope that was used to record the transit of Mercury, which
launched scientific research on Mt. Hamilton. From 1943 to 1965, Mt.
Hamilton weather observers were in charge of taking airway weather observations
in support of the United States Air Mail. Landmarks on the slopes of
Mt. Diablo, Loma Prieta, and Mt. Tamalpais were used in determining
the top of the fog across the San Francisco Bay Area. The cities of
San Jose, Oakland, and San Francisco were also used to estimate the
Lick Observatory was the first major mountaintop observatory and continues
to be an important research site. As part of the University of California,
the telescopes and facilities on Mt. Hamilton serve as an observing
station for faculty members and advanced students from the entire UC
system. Observers live on Mt. Hamilton while using the telescopes. A
resident group of staff, along with their families, form the year-round
Mt. Hamilton population. The Lick Observatory astronomers, as well as
the administrative and technical headquarters, are based on the UCSC
The National Weather Service Cooperative Observing Program consists
of 12,000 volunteer citizens and institutions observing and reporting
weather information on a 24-hour basis. These cooperative observations
form the backbone of temperature and precipitation records describing
the climate of the United States.
Today's cooperative observers have proud traditions dating back to
the first days of the nation. As early as 1797, Thomas Jefferson envisioned
a nationwide network of weather observers with at least one observer
The Cooperative Observing Program was formally established by the Organic
Act of 1890 with the purpose of taking meteorological observations to
"establish and record the climate conditions of the United States."
In addition to meeting the original agriculturally oriented mission
to describe the climate of the United States, today's cooperative observations
support many other applications. These include climate change and variability;
water management; drought assessment; presidential disaster declarations
(heat, floods, etc.); crop yield forecasts; litigation; engineering,
power plant and architectural design; recreation; flood zone determination;
and insurance industry needs.
Satellites, high-speed computers, mathematical computer models of the
atmosphere, and other technological breakthroughs have brought great
benefits to the nation in terms of better forecasts and warnings. But
without the century-long accumulation of accurate weather observations
taken by volunteer observers, scientists could not begin to describe
the climate of the United States.
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